This 2-hour webinar covers Métis history in Canada and Métis legal issues. Our panel includes Justice Ducharme of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Jean Teillet, Senior Counsel at Pape Salter Teillet LLP, and Patricia Barkaskas, Academic Director, Indigenous Community Legal Clinic. This article is part of our “Exploring Identity” series. We are taking a closer look at identity issues in Inuit, First Nations and Métis© communities. R. v. Powley went to the Supreme Court of Canada and, in its September 2003 decision, the Powleys were acquitted and the “Powley test” was introduced to determine the rights to which©they are entitled. The 1982 Constitution of Canada recognizes three distinct Aboriginal groups: First Nations, Inuit and Mati.© But it is generally accepted that this is ©not just a mixed indigenous and European heritage. ©They have a distinct collective identity, customs and way of life that are unique to their Aboriginal or European roots.

The Mãtis©Nation is a descendant of fur traders who settled in present-day Manitoba. There is a common culture, traditions and language among those whose family roots go back to the Red River Settlement. © Her Majesty the Queen in Law of Canada, represented by the Minister of Justice and the Attorney General of Canada, 2022 Who are men©and why is this issue so complicated? Here is a historical context. In its 1996 report, the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples stated: “Many Canadians have mixed Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal ancestry, but that does not make them Mãtis©or even Aborigines. Some identify as First Nations or Inuit, others as Mãtis©and others as non-Aboriginal. What sets people apart from everyone else is that they connect to a culture that©is clearly powerful©. In 2016, in Daniels v. Canada (Indian Affairs and Northern Development), the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that Native Americans and non-status Indians are considered Native Americans©under section 91(24) of the 1982 Constitution. Rhiannon Johnson is an Anishinaabe journalist from the Hiawatha First Nation based in Toronto. She has been working for the Indigenous entity since 2017 and focuses on the lives and experiences of Indigenous peoples in Ontario. You can reach them at and on Twitter @rhijhnsn. In 1983, the Mãtis Nation split from the NCC to form the National Council of Mãtis©, which represents the Mãtis©©communities of Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia.

In French, the word mã©tis is an adjective that refers to a person of mixed ancestry. Since the 18th century. The word is used to describe people of mixed Aboriginal and European ancestry. Over the past decade, the number of people identifying as Métis in these areas has exploded. This sparked conversations and controversies about the identity of the Mãtis©. Panelists will provide a brief history of who the Métis are and how Gladue principles and section 718.2(e) of the Criminal Code are applied to the Métis. According to the 2016 Census, 587,545 people in Canada identified as male©. This represents a growth of 51.2% since 2006.

Over the same period, the First Nations population increased by 39.3% and the Inuit population by 29.1%. Please enable JavaScript to experience Vimeo in all its glory. In October 1993, Steve and Roddy Powley killed a moose north of Sault Ste. Marie and were charged with illegally hunting a moose without a licence, contrary to Ontario`s Hunting and Fishing Act. They argued that, as Members of Parliament, ©they had the right under Rule 35 to hunt for food. There are others outside the Mãtis Nation who have no connection to the Red River Colony, who also identify themselves as Mãtis, especially in Quebec and the Maritimes. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples called them “the other Metis©©©” and declared that they were “a minority within a minority within a minority.” Commercial reproduction or distribution is prohibited without the written permission of the Department of Justice Canada. For more information, please contact the Department of Justice Canada at In the late 1970s and early 1980s©, Jim Sinclair lobbied for the rights of Native Americans to be recognized in the Constitution and helped found the Aboriginal Council of Canada (NCC).

When the Constitution was patriated in 1982, First Nations, Inuit and Metis©were recognized as Indigenous peoples with rights under Canadian law. The largest increases in the male©population were observed in Nova Scotia, Quebec and New Brunswick, where numbers more than doubled in 10 years. Nova Scotia posted the largest increase at just over 200%. The test considers 10 criteria, including self-identification, ancestral connection and community acceptance, to determine whether a person is eligible to exercise these©rights. The test was modelled on the Van der Peet test, which determines how First Nations rights claims are defined. The decision stated that the federal government should assume responsibility for negotiating programs and services for these©communities. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of Justice Canada or the Government of Canada. Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 guaranteed Aboriginal rights, but they were not defined. The information contained in this publication or product may be reproduced, in whole or in part, by any means, for personal or public, non-commercial use, without charge or further permission, unless otherwise indicated. Participants in this webinar can claim up to 2 hours of CPD from the Law Society of British Columbia, including 2 credit hours in practice management.