The theoretical and practical priorities of police administration have evolved over the years. Initial reform efforts focused on professional management, structure and control based on the traditional management approach. In the 1960s, increasing attention was paid to improving police performance through inspired leadership and attention to employee needs – the human relations approach. In recent years, there has been an increased focus on improving the effectiveness of police tactics and strategies, as well as the police service`s relationship with its external environment – strategic management and institutional approaches. More attention needs to be paid to the institutional approach, which emphasizes the structuring of discretion. Textual topics and training programs that effectively integrate all of these approaches into a more comprehensive examination of police administration theory and practice are also in demand. Law enforcement is the activity of certain members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the law by detecting, deterring, rehabilitating or punishing people who violate the rules and norms that govern this society. [1] While the term encompasses police, courts and correctional facilities, it is most commonly applied to those who patrol or monitor directly to deter and detect criminal activity, and to those who investigate crimes and arrest offenders,[2] a task typically performed by police, sheriff or other law enforcement agencies. Federal agencies have been created, usually in response to a specific need. The Revenue Cutter Service was founded in 1789 to solve smuggling problems. The U.S. Marshals appeared that same year with the task of investigating mail theft and crimes against the railroad.

The secret services, founded in 1865, originally dealt with forgeries. The responsibility to protect the president was not added to the functions of the secret service until 1901. The Federal Bureau of Investigation became the primary law enforcement agency, in part because of its handling of the Lindbergh baby kidnapping and the Kansas City massacre. Police administration theories have been largely derived from the more general fields of organizational theory, public administration, and business administration. Textual topics and police training programs have changed over the years, sometimes in response to new developments in police administration practice, sometimes in response to new ideas and concepts from research and literature. Today, several approaches can be identified, which differ mainly in the focus on certain components of police administration and in the factors influencing police organizations. Most law enforcement agencies are run by some sort of law enforcement agency, with the most typical agency playing this role being the police. Social investment in law enforcement by these organizations can be massive, both in terms of the resources invested in the activity and the number of people professionally engaged to perform these functions. [2] Law enforcement agencies are usually limited to their activities in a particular jurisdiction. In some cases, jurisdictions may overlap between organizations; For example, in the United States, each state has its own national law enforcement agencies, but the Federal Bureau of Investigation is able to take action against certain types of crimes that occur in each state. Different specialized segments of the Corporation may have their own internal enforcement policies. For example, military organizations may have a military police.

The classical approach is still popular and influential today for several reasons. It offers the simplest approach to holding police officers accountable. It is the centrepiece of the law enforcement accreditation program, now in its third decade of operation. It is the main means of risk management to minimize the civil liability of a police authority. It has been facilitated by the evolution of administrative law, which increasingly requires documentation to support disciplinary measures. It is consistent with the Incident Command System (ICS) and the National Incident Management System (NIMS), which are mandated at the federal level to respond to major homeland security crises, and it at least gives the appearance of tight control over police power and discretion that is reassuring to citizens and police administrators. Modern state legal systems use the term peace officer or law enforcement officer to include any person who has been vested with police powers or powers by the legislative state, traditionally any person who is “sworn or marked, who can arrest or detain a person for a violation of the criminal law, is included in the umbrella term enforcement. While law enforcement agencies are primarily concerned with preventing and punishing crimes, there are organizations that prevent various non-criminal violations of rules and norms caused by the imposition of less serious consequences, such as probation. Between the 1830s and 1850s, American cities created police forces day and night. Four theories have been proposed to explain the development of policing. The disorder control theory suggests that agencies were born out of the need to suppress mob violence. The anti-crime theory saw the need for a new type of police due to the increase in criminal activity.

Class control theory explains the development of the police as the result of class-based economic exploitation. The theory of urban dispersion claims that the police were created because other cities had them. With the increasing use of cars, highway patrol agencies began to appear across the country. The traffic police usually had the specific tasks of traffic surveillance. The State Police took over the broader tasks of law enforcement. During this period, commissions were also formed to investigate cases of police misconduct and make recommendations for change. Commissions such as the Chicago Crime Commission and the Wickersham Commission have identified issues related to management, training, and political influence.